On the iPhones, local and remote user notifications look and sound the same.
They can display an alert message or they can badge the app icon. They can also play a sound when the alert or badge number is shown. But they are truly different – the local notifications come from the device, while remote notifications (also called push notifications) come from APNs.
For local notifications: the application don’t need to be running, they can schedule it with the operating system.
For push notifications: the application has to register with Apple Push Notification service.
In iOS 8, we have location-based notifications.
For location-based notifications: the application needs to register with Core Location.